Why do i need this?



The United States Presidential Policy puts the United States on an an aggressive trajectory for reaching to moon by 2022. The COVID-19 crisis has inhibited the traditional working environment for many aerospace companies. Redmoon Systems aims to provide a consulting force capable of filling in the gaps to enable the US to achieve its stated goals.

What are we selling?

Our team has a history of innovation within the US Space program. We have staffed programs for the Department of Defense as well as NASA at companies such as Lockheed Martin, Raython, Boeing, and Northrop Grumman. Some examples of technologies pioneered by our engineers are

  • Advanced radar tracking algorithms for the F-18 aircraft
  • Infrared on-orbit cameras for NASA missions
  • Missile and re-entry vehicle tracking systems and technologies,
  • Space debris detection tracking and removal technologies
  • Many others

Our team is standing by to enable you to meet your aerospace and defense research goals.

Creating Satellite Constellations Using Quantum Computing

Summary: Group satellite together in such a way as to maximize coverage
Data: For any possible grouping of satellites, a coverage percentage
Goal: Assign each of N satellites to k groups, such that total mean coverage is maximized

Satellites change position and require constant reoptimization

Brute force solving is out of the question; even trivial subsets of the satellites form too many combinations to check
Quantum technology offers a promise to perform combinatorial optimization much faster, while yielding better coverage outcomes

An operation involving a large number of ground and space assets

This type of situation is common in the internet communications field as well where satellite coverage may be required to provide persistent coverage of subscribers.

Redmoon Systems has an optimization technology which is able to achieve 15% more coverage than any existing method. Our software zeroes in on the best possible constellation configuration for any specific satellite and ground target problem.

Featured below are our preliminary results:


An update on new methods for creating satellite constellations


The above presentation discusses a problem that is present in the satellite industry. There is a solution to this problem involving advanced computing technologies operated by NASA. We have partnered with NASA and DWave Systems to serve as a contact point for this particular solution. If you are interested, please email us

Ways to conserve fuel in space


What is this?

The above presentation was put together using NASA’s General Mission Analysis Tool software. We wanted to find out exactly how much fuel was being used for different NASA missions. We were hoping to baseline our navigation software so that we could see which areas needed improvement.




We learned that electric propulsion could be used in conjunction with our navigation software to enable a fine level of control and steering. This also boosts efficiency and enables long mission duration, resulting in more space exploration potential. This technology has actually been demonstrated in practice in the Dawn and Deep Space 1 missions. Our aim is to extend the applicability of a proven technology to *OTHER* types of missions and economic market sectors within space exploration.

How to improve accuracy in remote sensing

A short presentation provided Jenny Fleury’s perspective on the Firecat Mars Mission and discusses the synergies made possible by combining measurements from optical and radar systems. Basically the optical provides information that the radar sensor network doesn’t provide, and vice versa.

Typically, the optical sensor provides a spatial resolution map and can be used to identify visible features. The radar can be used to obtain range and range rate (distance and velocity along the line of sight).

What if alternate sensor nodes were include in the the Firecat Mars mission? One way to do this would be to deploy a space based radar payload in solar orbit just outside the asteroid belt. This mission could enable range mapping of the asteroid belt, which is a valuable endeavor because it can be used to calibrate the optical system located on mars. Once the orbits are accurately determined using the radar data, the image processing could simplified for Firecat to yield better spectral ID (noise reduction based on range information).

In other worlds the signal levels coming from the asteroids to the mars optical sensor remains low compared to the Firecat moon-earth sensing mission, however a significant reduction in noise levels from the mars radar would boost the effective signal to noise ratio, thereby improving accuracy.


How intuition can be inreased in astronomy and physics

At Redmoon Systems, we are exploring the connection between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics in the context of space dynamics, exploration and mission architecture. Typically when missions are planned, the usual approach is to determine motion of bodies (the spacecraft itself as well) involving patched conic solutions for the the nearest gravitational sphere of influence. This article by Esther Barrabés Vera describes a gentle shift in perspective.

Another approach is to think of the potential of a body as its wave function, in analogy to quantum theory. A planet may pass through space that is sometimes occupied by a planet with or without the planet actually being present. Depending on the circumstances or timing, the spacecraft may experience gravitational forces related to the gravitational potential energy of the planet. If this occurs, the spacecraft may attempt to capture into the potential well of the planet. The potential energy required to capture the spacecraft is like a wavefunction, or a slightly delocalized version of the classical model of reality.

The reason why this could be important is that underneath the traditional model of gravity is a more complex and rich universe! This relatively newly accessed regime is the realm of space manifold dynamics.

Taking into consideration two planets at the same time enables a more complex dance for a spacecraft of satellite. The mathematics to describe this type of interaction is fairly sophisticated and also reasonably well developed. By analogy, the difference is between the motion of a surfer on the ocean, diving in between waves compared against the motion of billiard balls on a pool table. The analogy is not precise, however it is worth noting that the dance of eternity takes place in our solar system with natural objects such as comets and meteors.

Studying these objects has helped open doors for us to see the complex movements in action, so that we can reproduce their motion in our mathematical models, and ultimately in our exploration of the galaxy. This all has nothing to do with quantum mechanics or quantum behavior, most people would assert.

However my goal is not to show evidence of quantum effects such as tunneling, entanglement, or teleportation of these macroscopic objects. I would simply like to consider the possibility that a gravitational potential could be interpreted as a wavefunction of a planet or star. What use this perspective has beyond a form of intuition has not been determined as yet.

Using the moon to inspect space debris

The Firecat Moon mission involves placing a remote passive sensor (i.e. robotic telescope) on the moon at a location that has visibility of the LEO, MEO, and GEO terrestrial debris. Sunlight bouncing off the surface of the debris will provide optical signal for the sensor. Our goal is to detect, track, and characterize debris objects based on this information. Our proof of concept study simulated the amount of light reaching the telescope, and found that there is a lot of radiation present. Here is the analysis:

One noise source for the Firecat Moon Mission is the Earth limb radiating in the background. It seems reasonable that from the moon, the Earth only subtends a pretty small angle, so would rarely be a background clutter source. Earth shine scattered off of your optics if looking too close to earth limb might be a bit of a problem, but more a noise source than anything else. So I think Firecat has just a standard GEO debris tracking problem, except that the range from the moon is probably a bit farther than what most missions require. The photon signal level will determine the detector’s integration time.


There is roughly a 15 percent increase in signal level for the GEO debris as compared to the LEO debris.

Professor Madhu Thangevelu from USC has numerous alternatives to complement this particular moon mission. Catch some of his advanced concepts online here!




How to use both mars and the moon for space debris operations

A new technology currently named Firecat is being developed at Redmoon. We are exploring the use of natural resources in space to further our own exploration (of space). One example coming to us by NASA during a conference at NASA Ames a few years ago was the use of asteroids orbiting the sun, just beyond the reach of Mars as a naturally occurring resource. We don’t currently know what exists in the asteroid belt, but we know that it would be helpful to learn more about the belt itself. The combination of solar and interplanetary gravitational forces (i.e. gravitational tides) generate resonances and other beautiful dynamics.

A Cosmic Fireball, for which Firecat is named

One approach to learning more about these resonances would be to observe the motions of the asteroids. Currently we have several missions undertaking this scientific objective. However NASA and the other spacefaring countries could potentially be open to new opportunities for studying the asteroids.

Two relatively new ideas are the placement of a robotic lander with infrared observing capabilities on the far side of the moon, and the same undertaking but located on the martian surface.

Our goal at Redmoon Systems is to study both of these missions and to better understand the science that could be possible.

NASA (origin)

How spectrometry can help space debris operations

For the Firecat proposal/mission, we have shifted our focus from LIDAR to passive infrared sensing. An active sensor generates its own light, and a passive sensor just receives light. A quick calculation indicates that there is a large amount of light due to solar glinting available to the lunar sensor and module. Here is some background info on infrared light 

Infrared light is radiated by a candle which we can “feel” with our hands as heat. Here is an image of a candle flame in the infrared:

Candles, Infrared and Heat

Space debris around the Earth is exposed to direct sunlight, which contains infrared radiation. Some of this radiation is absorbed by dust and debris, and some of it is reflected. Our team has experience in design and implementation of infrared telescopes and sensors from our work in the aerospace industry.


From the infrared standpoint, it is very helpful to characterize the parts of the fire which are radiating differently. This way we know how to interpret the image generated by our detector. The picture above shows that the outer flame is much hotter than the inner flame, and the melted wax also generates a heat signature. Likewise, we would like to understand and model how different parts of space debris radiate in the infrared part of the spectrum. This is called “phenomenology”, and involves physics and electromagnetic.