Why do I need this?



US Presidential Policy puts the United States on an aggressive trajectory for returning to the moon by 2022.  COVID-19 has inhibited traditional working practices for many aerospace companies. Redmoon Systems aims to provide a consulting force capable of filling in the necessary gaps to enable America to achieve the Presidential goals in space.

What are we selling?

Our team has a history of innovation within the US Space program. We have staffed programs for the Department of Defense as well as NASA at companies such as Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Boeing, and Northrop Grumman. Some examples of technologies pioneered by our engineers are

  • Advanced radar tracking algorithms for the F-18 aircraft
  • Infrared on-orbit cameras for NASA missions
  • Missile and re-entry vehicle tracking systems and technologies,
  • Space debris detection tracking and removal technologies
  • Many others

Our team is standing by to enable you to meet your aerospace and defense research goals.

Reviewing Proposals for Commercial Space Partnerships

John Chriton clicked the save button on his laptop, making sure his document was secured before getting up from his desk for a cup of Yuban coffee. Coffee was an important part of his work at the Air Education and Training Command headquarters, where he was tasked with reviewing proposals from industry on commercial space partnerships. Some of the topics included on-orbit manufacturing and repair propulsion and maneuvering, ground infrastrcture components, power collection, storage, and transmission, space domain awareness, in-space data centers, and modular space robotics.

Creating Satellite Constellations Using Quantum Computing

Summary: Group satellite together in such a way as to maximize coverage
Data: For any possible grouping of satellites, a coverage percentage
Goal: Assign each of N satellites to k groups, such that total mean coverage is maximized

Satellites change position and require constant reoptimization

Brute force solving is out of the question; even trivial subsets of the satellites form too many combinations to check
Quantum technology offers a promise to perform combinatorial optimization much faster, while yielding better coverage outcomes

An operation involving a large number of ground and space assets

This type of situation is common in the internet communications field as well where satellite coverage may be required to provide persistent coverage of subscribers.

Redmoon Systems has an optimization technology which is able to achieve 15% more coverage than any existing method. Our software zeroes in on the best possible constellation configuration for any specific satellite and ground target problem.

Featured below are our preliminary results:


Using the moon to inspect space debris

The Firecat Moon mission involves placing a remote passive sensor (i.e. robotic telescope) on the moon at a location that has visibility of the LEO, MEO, and GEO terrestrial debris. Sunlight bouncing off the surface of the debris will provide optical signal for the sensor. Our goal is to detect, track, and characterize debris objects based on this information. Our proof of concept study simulated the amount of light reaching the telescope, and found that there is a lot of radiation present. Here is the analysis:

One noise source for the Firecat Moon Mission is the Earth limb radiating in the background. It seems reasonable that from the moon, the Earth only subtends a pretty small angle, so would rarely be a background clutter source. Earth shine scattered off of your optics if looking too close to earth limb might be a bit of a problem, but more a noise source than anything else. So I think Firecat has just a standard GEO debris tracking problem, except that the range from the moon is probably a bit farther than what most missions require. The photon signal level will determine the detector’s integration time.


There is roughly a 15 percent increase in signal level for the GEO debris as compared to the LEO debris.

Professor Madhu Thangevelu from USC has numerous alternatives to complement this particular moon mission. Catch some of his advanced concepts online here!




How to apply quantum principles to infrared tech


When we learn physics in school, it is difficult to understand how to represent a falling ball as a math problem whose solution describes the real world. The first method we learned was Newtonian mechanics which is where everyone draws a force diagram, little arrows representing how a flower wants to evolve.

In college, we may learn something called Lagrangian mechanics which is a little different. For instance, instead of modeling forces, we talk about energy. Energy is often easier to find because it is always mass times velocity squared.

Lagrangian mechanics allows you to solve complex problems easily because you never need to know the forces at work.

But there is a trick to it. It requires identifying something called generalized coordinates, which can sometimes be challenging.

Actually, the invisible science behind Lagrangian mechanics revolves around a method or process known as the Calculus of Variations.


This involves two ideas: 1: that the differential equations of motion governing the dynamics of a classical or mechanical system can be deduced from a cost function and the fact that nature seeks to minimize the integral of this cost function. 2: that the way to identify the equations of motion require that we make small, even infinitesimal, changes in our path through the solution space.

In classical mechanics, the cost function has to do with energy minimization along a solution curve. Specifically, the cost function (Lagrangian) is defined on the tangent bundle (i.e. set of all tangent spaces to the solution curve, which contains velocity vectors). In Euclidean geometry, the “cost” function is actually the Euclidean distance, and is a metric defined on the solution curve or manifold itself (not the tangent bundle). The solution to problem in classical mechanics is a geodesic curve, i.e. one which minimizes the Lagrangian cost function.

In other domains, such as the infrared, it may be possible to construct a cost function based on the least action principle. However we must expand our notion of cost function.


       Greybody Curves

In the example below, the epsilon parameter is a constant between 0 and 1 for each colored curve. Epsilon determines the scale of the effective blackbody curve, which is represented by the value epsilon = 1.

In the absence of any experimental data on the thermal radiator, all values of epsilon are equally likely. One may think of the radiator in as existing (from our perspective) in an undetermined state. By analogy to the Everett interpretation of coherent quantum states, unique versions of the radiator can be said to exist in separated realities. When an experimental observation of the radiator is made, a specific radiation curve is identified. The precise nature of the radiator is then known in “our” reality. In quantum mechanics, this process is called decoherence. A macroscopic object is unlikely to be in a true quantum state as such states require very low temperatures, however the uncertainty in radiant flux can be interpreted using the Everett representation.

The modeling task therefore is to perform a controlled decoherence of a large number of possible co-existant states into a single macroscopic state.

This can be performed using linear algebra, and the idea of a quadratic form as the cost function defined on a solution manifold. The matrix representing the form controls the mixing of individual time streams (realities). [per the Everett interpretation]

Note that the gray body curve is smooth, in contrast to the curve of the selective radiator. An example of a selective radiator would be a metal such as copper which when reduced to powder and burned in an open flame produces a specific set of peaks corresponding to its valence energy levels.


The following Juypiter Notebooks file and latex writeup show a graphical implementation of these ideas in python 🙂

And the possible conclusions are startling!


AMOS Paper on Space Policy to be presented soon!

Space Policy affects nations and governments, all over the word. Our economies are shaped by our efforts to expand our consciousness among the stars, as new technologies and ideas are generated by our thirst for knowledge and exploration. Much of space exploration today takes place via robotic technologies, which are teaching us more about our world and galaxy. One thing is sure, what we do in space has a deep impact on Earth. Societies are shaped by the stories and myths we tell each other. Just think of how settling America affected economies around the globe. New industries opened up, and global consciousness grew out of pure exploration. If humans settled Mars or another world, how would our society change?

X-ray telescope sees distant planet as it passes an alien sun

For the first time, x-ray frequencies have been used to study the passage of a giant exoplanet in front of its central star. The images taken tell us how x-rays are absorbed by the atmosphere of the planet, and how they interact with the planet’s moon. What kind of atmosphere would the planet need to support life as we know it?